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Orientalism refers to the Orient , in reference and opposition to the Occident ; the East and the West, respectively. In art history , the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia , during the 19th century.

In that time, artists and scholars were described as Orientalists, especially in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary.

The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement.

Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who carefully painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without ever leaving the studio.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world.

Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company , who said that the Arab culture , the culture of India , and the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe.

British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education.

Additionally, Hebraism and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In his book Orientalism , cultural critic Edward Said redefines the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition—academic and artistic—of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world , which was shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo -Islamic cultures, especially Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami.

Furthermore, Said said that Orientalism, as an "idea of representation is a theoretical one: The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" to make the Eastern world "less fearsome to the West"; [18] and that the developing world, primarily the West, is the cause of colonialism.

In the academy, the book Orientalism became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results".

There is also a critical trend within the Islamic world , and in it was estimated that in Saudi Arabia alone there have been, penned by local or foreign scholars, around books critical of Orientalism as well as some articles.

The Moresque style of Renaissance ornament is a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque that began in the late 15th century and was to be used in some types of work, such as bookbinding , until almost the present day.

Early architectural use of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent is known as Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. The style gained momentum in the west with the publication of views of India by William Hodges , and William and Thomas Daniell from about Examples of "Hindoo" architecture are Sezincote House c.

Turquerie , which began as early as the late 15th century, continued until at least the 18th century, and included both the use of "Turkish" styles in the decorative arts, the adoption of Turkish costume at times, and interest in art depicting the Ottoman Empire itself.

Venice, the traditional trading partner of the Ottomans, was the earliest centre, with France becoming more prominent in the 18th century.

Chinoiserie is the catch-all term for the fashion for Chinese themes in decoration in Western Europe, beginning in the late 17th century and peaking in waves, especially Rococo Chinoiserie, c.

From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Western designers attempted to imitate the technical sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success.

Tin-glazed pottery made at Delft and other Dutch towns adopted genuine Ming -era blue and white porcelain from the early 17th century. Early ceramic wares made at Meissen and other centers of true porcelain imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teawares see Chinese export porcelain.

Pleasure pavilions in "Chinese taste" appeared in the formal parterres of late Baroque and Rococo German palaces, and in tile panels at Aranjuez near Madrid.

Thomas Chippendale 's mahogany tea tables and china cabinets, especially, were embellished with fretwork glazing and railings, c.

Sober homages to early Xing scholars' furnishings were also naturalized, as the tang evolved into a mid-Georgian side table and squared slat-back armchairs that suited English gentlemen as well as Chinese scholars.

Not every adaptation of Chinese design principles falls within mainstream " chinoiserie ". Small pagodas appeared on chimneypieces and full-sized ones in gardens.

Kew has a magnificent garden pagoda designed by William Chambers. The Wilhelma in Stuttgart is an example of Moorish Revival architecture.

Leighton House , built for the artist Frederic Leighton , has a conventional facade but elaborate Arab-style interiors, including original Islamic tiles and other elements as well as Victorian Orientalizing work.

After , Japonism , sparked by the importing of ukiyo-e , became an important influence in the western arts. Mary Cassatt , an American artist who worked in France, used elements of combined patterns, flat planes and shifting perspective of Japanese prints in her own images.

California architects Greene and Greene were inspired by Japanese elements in their design of the Gamble House and other buildings.

Egyptian Revival architecture became popular in the early and midth century and continued as a minor style into the early 20th century.

Moorish Revival architecture began in the early 19th century in the German states and was particularly popular for building synagogues.

Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture was a genre that arose in the late 19th century in the British Raj. In Biblical scenes in Early Netherlandish painting , secondary figures, especially Romans, were given exotic costumes that distantly reflected the clothes of the Near East.

The Three Magi in Nativity scenes were an especial focus for this. In general art with Biblical settings would not be considered as Orientalist except where contemporary or historicist Middle Eastern detail or settings is a feature of works, as with some paintings by Gentile Bellini and others, and a number of 19th-century works.

Renaissance Venice had a phase of particular interest in depictions of the Ottoman Empire in painting and prints.

Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople and painted the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio were the leading painters.

By then the depictions were more accurate, with men typically dressed all in white. The depiction of Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting sometimes draws from Orientalist interest, but more often just reflects the prestige these expensive objects had in the period.

The ambitious Scottish 18th-century artist Gavin Hamilton found a solution to the problem of using modern dress, considered unheroic and inelegant, in history painting by using Middle Eastern settings with Europeans wearing local costume, as travelers were advised to do.

His huge James Dawkins and Robert Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra , now Edinburgh elevates tourism to the heroic, with the two travelers wearing what look very like togas.

Many travelers had themselves painted in exotic Eastern dress on their return, including Lord Byron , as did many who had never left Europe, including Madame de Pompadour.

French Orientalist painting was transformed by Napoleon 's ultimately unsuccessful invasion of Egypt and Syria in —, which stimulated great public interest in Egyptology , and was also recorded in subsequent years by Napoleon's court painters, especially Antoine-Jean Gros , although the Middle Eastern campaign was not one on which he accompanied the army.

Two of his most successful paintings, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa and Battle of Abukir focus on the Emperor, as he was by then, but include many Egyptian figures, as does the less effective Napoleon at the Battle of the Pyramids Greece was still fighting for independence from the Ottomans, and was effectively as exotic as the more Near Eastern parts of the empire.

Delacroix followed up with Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi , commemorating a siege of the previous year, and The Death of Sardanapalus , inspired by Lord Byron , which although set in antiquity has been credited with beginning the mixture of sex, violence, lassitude and exoticism which runs through much French Orientalist painting.

He was greatly struck by what he saw, comparing the North African way of life to that of the Ancient Romans, and continued to paint subjects from his trip on his return to France.

Like many later Orientalist painters, he was frustrated by the difficulty of sketching women, and many of his scenes featured Jews or warriors on horses.

However, he was apparently able to get into the women's' quarters or harem of a house to sketch what became Women of Algiers ; few later harem scenes had this claim to authenticity.

More open sensuality was seen as acceptable in the exotic Orient. In many of these works, they portrayed the Orient as exotic, colorful and sensual, not to say stereotyped.

Such works typically concentrated on Arab, Jewish, and other Semitic cultures, as those were the ones visited by artists as France became more engaged in North Africa.

They stressed both lassitude and visual spectacle. Other scenes, especially in genre painting , have been seen as either closely comparable to their equivalents set in modern-day or historical Europe, or as also reflecting an Orientalist mind-set in the Saidian sense of the term.

Though British political interest in the territories of the unravelling Ottoman Empire was as intense as in France, it was mostly more discreetly exercised.

The origins of British Orientalist 19th-century painting owe more to religion than military conquest or the search for plausible locations for naked women.

The leading British genre painter , Sir David Wilkie was 55 when he travelled to Istanbul and Jerusalem in , dying off Gibraltar during the return voyage.

Though not noted as a religious painter, Wilkie made the trip with a Protestant agenda to reform religious painting, as he believed that: "a Martin Luther in painting is as much called for as in theology, to sweep away the abuses by which our divine pursuit is encumbered", by which he meant traditional Christian iconography.

He hoped to find more authentic settings and decor for Biblical subjects at their original location, though his death prevented more than studies being made.

William Holman Hunt produced a number of major paintings of Biblical subjects drawing on his Middle Eastern travels, improvising variants of contemporary Arab costume and furnishings to avoid specifically Islamic styles, and also some landscapes and genre subjects.

The Miracle of the Holy Fire was intended as a picturesque satire on the local Eastern Christians, of whom, like most English visitors, Hunt took a very dim view.

Similar strains of fascination and repulsion convulsed their artists" [38] Nonetheless, nudity and violence are more evident in British paintings set in the ancient world, and "the iconography of the odalisque John Frederick Lewis , who lived for several years in a traditional mansion in Cairo , painted highly detailed works showing both realistic genre scenes of Middle Eastern life and more idealized scenes in upper class Egyptian interiors with no traces of Western cultural influence yet apparent.

He "never painted a nude", and his wife modelled for several of his harem scenes, [39] which, with the rare examples by the classicist painter Lord Leighton , imagine "the harem as a place of almost English domesticity, Fernand Cormon , The Deposed Favourite , Ferdinand Max Bredt — Turkish ladies John Frederick Lewis , The Reception , Other artists concentrated on landscape painting , often of desert scenes, including Richard Dadd and Edward Lear.

David Roberts — produced architectural and landscape views, many of antiquities , and published very successful books of lithographs from them. Russian Orientalist art was largely concerned with the areas of Central Asia that Russia was conquering during the century, and also in historical painting with the Mongols who had dominated Russia for much of the Middle Ages, who were rarely shown in a good light.

Nationalist historical painting in Central Europe and the Balkans dwelt on Turkish oppression, with battle scenes and maidens about to be raped.

The Saidian analysis has not prevented a strong revival of interest in, and collecting of, 19th century Orientalist works since the s, the latter was in large part led by Middle Eastern buyers.

Authors and composers are not commonly referred to as "Orientalist" in the way that artists are, and relatively few specialized in Oriental topics or styles, or are even best known for their works including them.

But many major figures, from Mozart to Flaubert, have produced significant works with Oriental subjects or treatments.

Lord Byron with his four long "Turkish tales" in poetry, is one of the most important writers to make exotic fantasy Oriental settings a significant theme in the literature of Romanticism.

Giuseppe Verdi 's opera Aida is set in Egypt as portrayed through the content and the visual spectacle. Irish Orientalism had a particular character, drawing on various beliefs about early historical links between Ireland and the East, few of which are now regarded as historically correct.

The mythical Milesians are one example of this. The Irish were also conscious of the views of other nations seeing them as comparably backward to the East, and Europe's "backyard Orient.

In music, Orientalism may be applied to styles occurring in different periods, such as the alla Turca , used by multiple composers including Mozart and Beethoven.

Nonetheless, Taruskin characterizes Orientalism in Romantic Russian music as having melodies "full of close little ornaments and melismas," [47] chromatic accompanying lines, drone bass [48] —characteristics which were used by Glinka , Balakirev , Borodin , Rimsky-Korsakov , Lyapunov , and Rachmaninov.

These musical characteristics evoke: [48]. In a word, it signifies the promise of the experience of nega , a prime attribute of the orient as imagined by the Russians In opera and song, nega often simply denotes S-E-X a la russe, desired or achieved.

Orientalism is also traceable in music that is considered to have effects of exoticism , including the japonisme in Claude Debussy 's piano music all the way to the sitar being used in recordings by the Beatles.

Orientalism, in a more camp fashion also found its way into exotica music in the late s, especially the works of Les Baxter , for example, his composition "City of Veils.

The Romantic movement in literature began in and ended around The term Romantic references the ideas and culture that writers of the time reflected in their work.

During this time, the culture and objects of the East began to have a profound effect on Europe. Extensive traveling by artists and members of the European elite brought travelogues and sensational tales back to the West creating a great interest in all things "foreign.

The current trend in analysis of this movement references a belief in this literature as a mode to justify European colonial endeavors with the expansion of territory.

He portrayed its culture as morally corrupting and suffused with dangerously alluring eroticism. This novel proved hugely influential on later portrayals of ancient Semitic cultures.

Said argues that the continuity of Orientalism into the present can be found in influential images, particularly through the Cinema of the United States , as the West has now grown to include the United States.

The overly sexualized character of Princess Jasmine in Aladdin is simply a continuation of the paintings from the 19th century, where women were represented as erotic, sexualized fantasies.

He notes, that the film "tells us more about the Americans and the American's image of Okinawa rather than about the Okinawan people.

Kimiko Akita, in Orientalism and the Binary of Fact and Fiction in 'Memoirs of a Geisha' , argues that Memoirs of a Geisha contains orientalist tropes and deep "cultural misrepresentations.

During the Romantic period of the 19th century, ballet developed a preoccupation with the exotic.

This exoticism ranged from ballets set in Scotland to those based on ethereal creatures. By the later part of the century, ballets were capturing the presumed essence of the mysterious East.

These ballets often included sexual themes and tended to be based on assumptions of people rather than on concrete facts.

Orientalism is apparent in numerous ballets. Zahlung PayPal und alle anderen Debit- oder Kreditkarten nur. Leider können wir keine telefonischen Zahlungen entgegennehmen.

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